Material Removal

Material Removal


Different methods of filing:

Draw filing: hold file sideways, pull towards you

Draw filing

Cross filing: Hold in same way, instead move the file left to right (this is the normal method of filing that we do)

Cross filing

Turning (Centre Lathe)

centre lathe gif Centre lathe drawing

Types of chuck:

Three Jaw: Self centering, consists of three jaws, one chuck key moves all three at the same time

Four Jaw: Requires manual alignment, used for off-centre cutting, on a four jaw chuck, each jaw is moved one at a time.

Chuck diagrams Offset workpiece diagram

Manually aligning the height of the cutting tool:

A ruler can be used to align the cutting tool. The ruler is placed between the cutting tool and the workpiece, then the cutting tool is moved so that it is pressing up against the ruler. The movement of the ruler determines whether the height is correct or not

Cutting tool alignment drawing

Milling (Vertical Milling Machine)


The table of the milling machine can move in 3 planes, X, Y, and Z.

The cutting tool can rotate clockwise or anticlockwise, but most rotate the correct way for that type of cutting tool.

The cutting tool can be moved upwards and downwards if necessary for fine adjustments, but most adjustments should be made with the table.

Possible Exam Question: Describe, with the aid of sketches, the operating characteristics of a vertical milling machine. In your answer, you must demonstrate the cutter direction or movement and the direction of table movement (6 marks)




Ways of holding workpieces

method 1 method 2

Drilling cylindrical components

method 1 method 2

Two methods of holding a twist drill bit

method 1 method 1

Annotation of Drill bit

method 1


punching diagram

Chemical Etching

Chemical etching image




You need to know stuff about this, but don't know what we need to know but I guess most of it is self explanatory